Endurance Running (09:38)
Dean Karnazes can run 350 miles in 81 hours due to efficient technique and a low blood lactate level. Sports medicine doctor Anthony Luke conducts a test on oxygenation, lactate levels, and running form using a 3-D marker system.
Overtone Singing (06:36)
Most people can sing only one note at a time; Wolfgang Saus can produce two notes at once. Bernhard Richter studies Saus' mouth and larynx using an MRI, and discovers that he is creating an additional resonance chamber beneath his tongue and changing the tongue shape.
Claudia Hughes is a contortionist who can overextend her joints 17 to 18% more than most people. The connective tissue around her joints is looser, because of weak collagen, and requires Hughes to work harder to stabilize her joints and avoid injury.
Epidermolysis Bullosa (07:50)
Damage to one of the proteins holding the layers of skin together results in a loose connection. Paul Martinez’s skin easily blisters and his fingers are covered in scar tissue; he is part of a new treatment plan. Dr. Jean Tang conducts a clinical trial using a virus to bring a replacement gene into the patient’s cell.
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (07:14)
Brynn is allergic to most foods, perfumes, smoke, the sun, and many other things. Dr. Lawrence Afrin explains, this condition is due to chronic inflammation from a mutation in mast cells that causes an overproduction of. Afrin is conducting an experiment to see if mast cell mutation is responsible for other diseases.
Cholesterol in the Brain (07:50)
Chris and Hugh Hempel noticed clumsiness and inactivity in their children who were eventually diagnosed with Niemann Pick Disease type C. Cholesterol collects in the brain cells, leading to cell death and brain damage. The Hempels learned about a research project that found cyclodextrin was an effective treatment in mice. They gathered a team to get approval for a new drug.
Credits: The Ultimate Machine (00:39)
Credits: The Ultimate Machine
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