Martin Luther King, Jr. (02:32)
Civil rights activist John Lewis explains the leader's significance to the African-American community during segregation. View footage of the Selma Freedom March and of King's final Memphis speech.
Robert Francis Kennedy (03:59)
Experts discuss Kennedy's ability to empathize with Americans of diverse backgrounds and his commitment to truth. View footage of a speech at Indiana University in April 1968. After visiting Mississippi sharecroppers in 1967, he resolved to fight hunger and poverty.
Presidential Decisions (02:42)
The Tet Offensive dashed hopes of victory and Johnson ignored the Kerner Commission's civil rights recommendations. When Kennedy decided to run in 1968, Johnson did not seek reelection.
Indiana Campaign (03:02)
Campaign staff members recall Kennedy filing for candidacy. Thousands of supporters attended his speeches; hear an exchange with an African-American student in which Kennedy believes white Americans will support civil rights.
Losing King (02:27)
Hurley Goodall recalls hearing of the civil rights leader's assassination. Although shocked, Kennedy decided not to cancel his Indianapolis speech.
17th and Broadway (04:37)
Washington, D.C. suggested Kennedy cancel his Indianapolis rally appearance. Colleagues recall Kennedy's determination to speak, despite security concerns. The crowd included white supporters and African-Americans who knew about King's assassination.
Preparing for Riots (02:43)
Indianapolis mayor Richard Lugar warned Kennedy to cancel the rally. Speech writer Adam Walinsky describes re-writing Kennedy's speech to address King's assassination and approaching the rally. Ethel Kennedy prayed for her husband's safety.
Facing a Hostile Crowd (02:48)
Rally participants recall racial tensions as Kennedy arrived to 17th and Broadway. Police were concerned about rioting.
Urging Peace and Reconciliation (05:41)
Kennedy informs the Indianapolis crowd that King had been assassinated that day and appeals for racial tolerance and compassion. He mentions John F. Kennedy's assassination. Colleagues and historians analyze his speech so far.
Crisis of Faith (04:14)
Kennedy references an Aeschylus poem about finding wisdom through suffering while appealing for peace after King's assassination. Colleagues and historians discuss his feelings of guilt and search for answers after John's assassination.
Maintaining Peace (05:32)
Kennedy asks the crowd to pray for King and for the U.S.; he says most whites and blacks want to live together. Rally participants respond positively and go home without rioting. Hear views on why Indianapolis avoided violence.
Robert Kennedy Assassination (03:44)
Friends and colleagues discuss Kennedy's empathy and commitment to truth and public service. In June 1968, he won the California primary. After speaking in Los Angeles, Ambassador Hotel worker Sirhan Sirhan shot the presidential nominee on June 5.
Losing Two Great Leaders (03:40)
Hear views on how King and Kennedy would have shaped American society, had they lived. Kennedy's speech at the 17th and Broadway rally echoed King's philosophy of nonviolence and inspired peace.
Robert Kennedy's Legacy (01:46)
Frankie Mankiewicz describes a monument to Kennedy with excerpts from his Indianapolis speech and "Ripple of Hope" speech given in South Africa.
Credits: A Ripple of Hope (03:12)
Credits: A Ripple of Hope
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