Struggle Over Ideas (02:15)
Suffrage was debated in town halls, on street corners, and dinner tables across America.
"The Envoys" (08:37)
Frances Joliffe, Sara Bard Field, and two Swedish individuals left the Panama Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco to petition for a constitutional amendment in Washington D.C. President Woodrow Wilson greeted the group warmly but worried home would suffer. (Credits)
Suffrage Crisis (09:38)
At the Republican National Convention in Chicago, women pressed for a national amendment. National American Woman Suffrage Association President Carrie Chapman Catt tried to convince both political parties to endorse votes for women and launched "The Winning Plan."
Presidential Election (10:11)
Charles Evan Hughes endorsed a federal amendment. Alice Paul formed "The National Women's Party" and sent supporters to advocate against voting for President Wilson. Citizens were more concerned about World War I; Wilson promised the U.S. would not enter the war.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (05:30)
Maud Wood Park taught lobbyists how to approach congressmen. Suffragists kept extensive records of each meeting and employed blackmail if necessary.
Picketing the White House (06:45)
Paul organized the picket that was intended to last until Inauguration Day. President Wilson offered the activists coffee. African American women understood the right to vote was another tool to dismantle social structures.
America Enters the War (07:31)
President Wilson severed diplomatic relations after Germany sunk a U.S. ship. Catt, a pacifist, advocated for disarmament and mediation. The National American Woman Suffrage Association pledged support to the government. Paul refused to stop protesting at the White House.
World War I (05:15)
At a joint session of Congress, President Wilson asked for a declaration of war. Jeanette Rankin took the oath of office and sponsored a bill to reintroduce the suffrage amendment. Women participated in the war effort; the Women's Committee of the Council for National Defense was created.
Activists Jailed (09:02)
The National Woman's Party created banners to grab the attention of Russian diplomats. Activists were arrested. Catt released a clarification that the National American Woman Suffrage Association did not support the picketing; Paul was jailed for seven months.
Last Free State (06:37)
Catt led a procession of 20,000 suffragists in New York City; she carried a petition signed by over one million women. President Wilson endorsed state campaigns; victories occurred in five states. African Americans mobilized clubs into political power.
Activists Rebel (06:28)
Paul incited was placed in solitary confinement. She refused food for three days and was force-fed twice daily. Women were beaten, dragged through corridors, and thrown into cells.
Fourteen Point Speech (04:37)
President Wilson urged Democrats to vote in favor of the suffrage amendment. Catt and Paul claimed responsibility for his conversion. The Woman's Party founder realized 11 votes were needed for Senate approval.
Senate Approval (10:35)
Congress passed Prohibition. President Wilson entreated senators to vote for suffrage, but southern senators refused. The Northeast Federation of Colored Women's Clubs realized the issue of race must remain in the conversation about women's suffrage; Congress passed the 19th Amendment.
Last Stand (04:03)
Thirty-six states have to ratify a federal amendment. President Wilson urged Albert Roberts to call a special session for Tennessee's State Senate.
Tennessee Standoff (09:47)
Suffragists, anti-suffragists, politicians, lobbyists, and reporters converged on Nashville. Legislators signed documents attesting they would vote for a federal amendment; Harry Burn voted in favor of the amendment. A Jack Daniel's suite was erected at the Hermitage Hotel.
Women Vote (04:48)
Nine million women voted in the November 1920 election, but African American women were denied in southern states. The 19th Amendment allowed half the population to begin achieving equality.
Credits: The Vote: Episode 2 (01:20)
Credits: The Vote: Episode 2
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